Christopher Lee’s Best Movie

I was genuinely saddened to learn that Christopher Lee died last Sunday. For some of us, he wasn’t just great talent, but an iconic figure from our childhood. I was a Monster Kid of the 1970s: raised on Saturday matinees, the 4:30 movie, Chiller Theatre on channel 11 (that hand!), and Famous Monsters of Filmland. I didn’t do sports and wasn’t much of a student. I did Karloff and Chaney and Cushing and Lee.

And he was the last. They’re all gone now. Lugosi and Chaney, before I was born. Then Uncle Boris, Vincent Price, Lon Chaney Jr, Peter Cushing, Ray Harryhausen, Ray Bradbury, Peter Lorre, John Carradine, all of them. And now the towering legend with the giant voice and those amazing eyes joins them.

house-of-the-long-shadows-group-picture

Reunion time?

Christopher Lee appeared in a couple hundred movies. I’ve sought them out and maybe seen less than half. A great many of them were crap, a number of them were quite good, and some were classics.

There are a few titles that fans would place at the top of their lists: The Wicker Man, of course. Horror of Dracula. Curse of Frankenstein. Lord of the Rings. Maybe Hound of the Baskervilles or The Private Life of Sherlock Holmes or Richard Lester’s Musketeers movies.

But one film many of fans, myself included, would single out as their favorite is The Devil Rides Out (1967), directed by Terence Fisher from a screenplay by Richard Matheson.

This was a pet project of Lee’s, and he had to push Hammer to get it done. Lee was tired of the pop-up scares of Dracula movies. He wanted to depict real evil and Satanism in a serious way. He wanted to show that the occult was dangerous, and treat it with intelligence. I just rewatched this film a week ago with the commentary track on, and was struck by how knowledgeable he was about the subject, and how much the film meant to him.

Jesus wins.

Based on Dennis Wheatley’s novel, the film stars Lee as Nicolas, the Duc de Richleau, a character who appeared in many other novels by Wheatley. Nicolas and Rex Van Ryn learn that a young friend, Simon, is being drawn into Satanism by a charismatic Aleister Crowley type played by Charles Gray. (Both Gray and Lee later played Bond villains.)

The film is notable for its accuracy and its sober depiction of occult practices and their dangers. Even more notable is its strong Christian message. Over and over, either God or Jesus is used to thwart evil. The final triumph (it’s not like I’m spoiling things here) is accomplished by the overwhelming power of the cross. Even when the good guys use an incantation, it hearkens back to Solomon. (In esoteric tradition, Solomon was able to control and cast out demons.)

A lot of horror has a winking quality: the audience understands this is a lark. The Devil Rides Out plays it straight down the line, and it’s stronger for it.

Lee clearly believe in the devil and the power of God to thwart him, and was adamant about the dangers of trifling with the occult, as he shows in this clip.

Lee himself was Anglo-Catholic. His noble blood line was traced back to Charlemagne, and I believe that he had a pope somewhere in his family tree. He was the one of the last men of a dying generation. He saw evil up close in the war, and he knew the devil’s power.

lee

Lee’s autobiography is great fun.

The Devil Rides Out is out of print on DVD, but you get all 11 of the original Wheatley occult novels in one Kindle collection

Get all 11 of the original Wheatley occult novels in one Kindle collection. Well-researched and good fun.

Out of print and expensive. Even when I needed money I wouldn't sell this one.

Out of print and expensive. Even when I needed money I wouldn’t sell this one.

The Most Important Book of the Year is Only $5 For a Limited Time

manual-spiritual-warfare-1043105Paul Thigpen’s Manual for Spiritual Warfare is a must-have. I hate the phrase “instant classic,” partly because it’s an oxymoron, and partly because time is fickle, but I can see this one being read and handed down and treasured a hundred years from now.

Thigpen’s book is a clear-headed and faith-filled look at the devil and his works, and the tools we have to fight him. My blogmother Julie D. has a review of it here. I hope to write a more considered appraisal of it in the future.

TAN books published it in a leather-bound prayer-book format meant to be carried around, but they blew through their initial print run so fast that people are having trouble getting a copy while TAN prints more.

Because of this, the’ve reduced the price of the Kindle edition to $5 for a limited time. At that price, just buy it. You will not regret it.

Night Will Fall: Watch The Actual “Hitchcock Holocaust Film” Online

By all accounts, the documentary Night Will Fall is an excellent piece of work. It chronicles the production–and suppression–of a vivid and gruesome documentary about the Nazi death camps shot in April 1945.

The marquee name attached to it is Alfred Hitchcock, even though Hitch’s exact contribution is unclear. He was brought in to supervise the production and had some input into the filming at the camps, but while he was working on the editing and the script the British government pulled the plug. Was it a loss of nerve? The horrifying nature of the material? Or just plain old antisemitism? Those are some of the questions Night Will Fall tackles.

Here’s the trailer:

Yet, in many of the articles I’ve read about the film, there’s no mention at all of a singular fact: the film was actually “made” 30 years ago and broadcast on PBS Frontline. They dug up a surviving script, got hold of five of the original six reels of footage, edited it together, and got Trevor Howard to narrate it.

And you can watch that film–called Memories of the Camps–right now, online.

Here’s how PBS describes it:

As the film’s history shows, it was a project that was supervised by the British Ministry of Information and the American Office of War Information. And during that summer of 1945 some of the documentary editing was done under the direction of Alfred Hitchcock.

“At the time we found the film, it was not entirely clear what role Hitchcock played in its development,” says David Fanning, executive producer of FRONTLINE. “Moreover, one reel of the original six, shot by the Russians, was missing. There was a typed script intact — undated and unsigned — but it had never been recorded.”

FRONTLINE took the film, added the script and asked the late British actor, Trevor Howard, to record it. The aim was to present the film unedited, as close as possible to what the producers intended in 1945.

“Memory of the Camps” includes scenes from Dachau, Buchenwald, Belsen and other Nazi concentration camps whose names are not as well known. Some of the horrors documented took place literally moments before the Allied troops arrived, as the Germans hurried to cover the evidence of what they had done.

Twenty years after its first broadcast on FRONTLINE, “Memory of the Camps” remains one of the most definitive and unforgettable records of the 20th century’s darkest hour.

HT: No Garcia.

Taking the Devil Seriously

Republished from June 2014, because posts about Satan always bring the evil little worms out of the woodwork.

The reality of the devil was one of the hardest things for me to accept when I returned to the Church. When I made my choice to assent and submit to all the Church teaches, I knew I had a long road ahead of me. I knew that much pride and intellectual vanity and modernist funk would have to be scraped away before I could conform myself fully to the Church.

This process of death to self and the world in order to allow a new life in the Spirit to take root is not easy, and indeed it is ongoing. Each Catholic is in a different places in his or her journey. If you would have questioned me about my faith in my early 20s, I would have dismissed many key elements of Church teachings and sounded like a typical cafeteria Catholic. Faith is not a static thing. It’s organic. It has its seasons of growth and seasons where it seems to lay fallow.

And we all have those weaker moments. Not moments of disbelief, necessarily, but of weakness, of a lessening ardor, of a gentle fading of the passion for the Lord. The distractions and pressures of the world batter us and threaten to push faith to the fringes.

That’s the place where Satan wants us. When we aren’t looking, when we are distracted, when we are weak or sick in body or mind, when we have doubts: those are moments for him to do his work.

Families are organic, and thus they, too, have their cycles from fallow to fruiting. The Church is always under attack, from within and without, and the family is an image of the Church. Why think it could be any less under attack? One look around us shows a society where the meaning of marriage has collapsing. Gay marriage didn’t do it. That was just a final bullet to the head after the damage wrought by no-fault divorce and other family-destroying policies and social trends.

So when Francis speaks of the family being under attack by the Devil, he’s speaking a truth more need to hear:

Families are the home Church where Jesus grows. He grows in the spouses’ love and in the children’s lives. For this reason, the enemy attacks the family so much. The devil does not want it. He tries to destroy it, to prevent love from becoming free. Families are the home church. But married people are sinners like everyone else, they do not want to go in faith, in its fertility, in children and the faith of their children. May the Lord bless the family, and make it strong in the face of the crisis by which the devil wants to destroy it.

We need to start acting like the devil is real and threatening, particularly in our families. The Church cannot stand without the family. One is a reflection of the other.

Dealing with the devil: tie him and give him a heavy burden.

The problem is that we don’t like to think about demonic activity in our world, and we certainly don’t like to talk about it. When was the last time you ever heard Satan mentioned in a homily? I don’t think I ever have. The recent controversy about the Black Mass at Harvard pushed it forward and forced us to deal discuss it in the open, and we shouldn’t let that moment go to waste.

There’s one basic fact you must accept: you cannot be a Christian and reject the existence of the devil. It’s that simple. Jesus talks about the devil more than anyone else in scripture.  He’s not a metaphor. He’s not another word for evil or sin. He’s a fallen angel, and he’s real.

That’s tough stuff for modern man to grasp. The devil was used so effectively as a boogeyman for so many years that eventually the real understanding of his existence was lost, and only the boogeyman remains. And what do parents tell frightened children? “There is no boogeyman.”

Satan’s had a pretty good run lately. A look around the world seems to show that it’s pretty much his playground. We see it the broken families and broken lives. We see it in the anxiety and doubt of faithful Catholics and the boldness of the forces of disbelief. We see it in a government and society that dehumanizes the individual.

And yet we see hope, too, and though it’s never as flashy or as evil, it’s a powerful thread binding us all together in the Catholic community, the larger Christian community, and in human family. We’re all either tending upwards towards heaven or downwards towards hell.

In the face of so much evil at work in the world, the differences separating Catholics from each other and even Catholics from other Christians and other faiths shouldn’t occupy as much energy as they do. We have a common enemy, and it’s trying to destroy faith and destroy families, since it knows it can’t destroy the Church is itself. Convincing the world he didn’t exist was Satan’s most powerful act, but shattering Christian unity and fomenting discord runs a close second. We can’t fight him and each other at the same time.

Let’s begin by taking the devil seriously. If you don’t already pray the prayer to St. Michael the Archangel every day, you should start. Teach it to your children and students.

Indeed, it’s well past time that we returned the prayer to its rightful place at the end of each mass. It keeps the enemy always in sight, and reminds us that we are not alone in this struggle against the powers of this present darkness.

St. Michael the Archangel, defend us in battle. Be our defense against the wickedness and snares of the Devil. May God rebuke him, we humbly pray, and do thou, O Prince of the heavenly hosts, by the power of God, thrust into hell Satan, and all the evil spirits, who prowl about the world seeking the ruin of souls. Amen.

 

Satanist Guilty of Killing Two Women

As part of what was allegedly a “Satanic suicide pact,” Mark Dobson killed Helen Dorrington (age 52) and Mary Hepburn (32) in May 2012. He cut their throats in a TraveLodge motel in Barrie, Ontario, in a bloody scene marked by Satanic art and dismembered dolls.

Dobson tried to plead guilty, but the judge refused because he felt the plea was not in the best interest of the defendant. If Dobson could prove mental illness had compromised his ability to know right from wrong, he might have been able to escape the harsh punishment of the plea.

During his plea attempt, Dobson told the judge, “I did it, I murdered them and now I want to do my time in the pen.”

This week, he was found guilty of first degree murder because he appreciated the gravity of his crimes.

Dobson met the women in a chat room for a Satanist site called (and I am not making this up) the Joy of Satan, which is filled with the usual Church of Satan-style hoo-ha about this being a true religion of peace and other lies. Please don’t go there. You’ll get dumber just glancing at it.

On a related note: The “Church” of “Satan” has complained to Patheos before about my reference to Satanic murderers as Satanists. Apparently, people who worship Satan and kill in the name of Satan are not real Satanists because: reasons!

Mark Dobson, who slit the throats of two women in an orgy of Satanic violence, worshiped Satan.

Ergo, he was a Satanist.

Sources here and here.

The Devil Tempts St. Benedict

Rule

This illumination showed up in my medievalist Twitter feed today and I tracked it back to the so-called Mettener Regel (1414), a manuscript of the rule of Saint Benedict as practiced at the Abbey of Metten. The manuscript is illustrated by moments in the life of St. Benedict.

At first, I thought this might be an illustration from the rule itself, with the devil depicted as a tempting woman with hideous talons:

Those garments of which he is divested shall be placed in the wardrobe, there to be kept, so that if, perchance, he should ever be persuaded by the devil to leave the monastery (which God forbid), he may be stripped of the monastic habit and cast forth.

That doesn’t fit, however, since the figure seems to be Benedict himself.

That’s when I recalled the grand collection of fascinating stuff that is the Dialogues of Pope St. Gregory the Great. Book 2 is Gregory’s Life of Benedict, which includes this passage.

One day, while the saint was alone, the Tempter came in the form of a little blackbird, which began to flutter in front of his face. It kept so close that he could easily have caught it in his hand. Instead, he made the sign of the cross and the bird flew away. The moment it left, he was seized with an unusually violent temptation. The evil spirit recalled to his mind a woman he had once seen, and before he realized it his emotions were carrying him away. Almost overcome in the struggle, he was on the point of abandoning the lonely wilderness, when suddenly with the help of God’s grace he came to himself.

He then noticed a thick patch of nettles and briers next to him. Throwing his garment aside he flung himself into the sharp thorns and stinging nettles. There he rolled and tossed until his whole body was in pain and covered with blood. Yet, once he had conquered pleasure through suffering, his torn and bleeding skin served to drain the poison of temptation from his body. Before long, the pain that was burning his whole body had put out the fires of evil in his heart. It was by exchanging these two fires that he gained the victory over sin. So complete was his triumph that from then on, as he later told his disciples, he never experienced another temptation of this kind.

Soon after, many forsook the world to place themselves under his guidance, for now that he was free from these temptations he was ready to instruct others in the practice of virtue. That is why Moses commanded the Levites to begin their service when they were twenty-five years old or more and to become guardians of the sacred vessels only at the age of fifty.

Thus, the picture shows the devil as both the beautiful tempting women Benedict remembered, and as the blackbird, merged into a horrible chimera to reveal the evil lurking below the surface of even the most pleasing temptation.

A Compilation of My Dark and Ghostly Posts

My first writing was in the horror genre, contributing to publications like The Horror Show and Cemetery Dance, and writing entries for the encyclopedia Supernatural Fiction Writers. I even worked for George A. Romero’s Laurel Entertainment film and TV production company for a little while. I think there’s value in exploring dark themes, fear, and even revulsion in art. The medievals certainly thought so, or they wouldn’t have produced so much of it.

I had fun with this month’s two series: Dark Country and Ghosts in the Church.

I’m not going to link all the individual Dark Country posts individually, but you can find all all them here, from “Eli Renfro” to “The Man Comes Around.”

I’d been thinking about ghosts for a while now, and wondering where they fit in the theology and life of the church. I didn’t get as much written as I’d hoped because we had a family medical crisis while I was working on it, but 10,000 words is plenty for now. A shorter article will be published by the National Catholic Register.

Here are all the posts in the Ghosts in the Church series:

Ghosts in the Bible

Ghostly Visions in the Early Church

Tertullian’s Deceiving Devils

Three posts on St. Augustine’s detailed consideration of ghosts:

St. Martin and the Thief’s Ghost

St. Gregory the Great’s Bath-house Ghost

St. Thomas Aquinas Believed in Ghosts (True fact)

Do You Believe in Ghosts? (In which I answer the question: “Sorta, sometimes”)

I’ve also written quite a bit about Satan and ancient burial customs. And Boris Karloff. And MR James.

Have a happy Halloween.

Frankenstein color (220 x 265)

North Carolina Satanist Killed and Ate Two Victims

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“Pazuzu Algarad” and accomplice Amber Burch

A North Carolina man named “Pazuzu Algarad” (he changed it to the name of the demon from The Exorcist) has apparently confessed to murdering two men and eating parts of their bodies during Satanic rituals. The men–Joshua Wetzler, age 37, and Tommy Welch, 26–were then buried in his backyard with the help of two women.

There was also indications of animal sacrifice during Satanic rituals, with “Pazuzu” boasting of eating the “still beating hearts” of animals. The Winston-Salem Journal has more details, and the strong content warning for this one should be obvious.

More details continue to emerge about the lives of Pazuzu Algarad and Amber Burch, the two people arrested on Oct. 5 and charged in the murder and burial of two men at their Clemmons home.

According to a friend of Burch, Algarad’s girlfriend, he claimed to get a high from eating the “still-beating heart” of a sacrificial animal and bragged openly about having killed two prostitutes.

That friend visited the house in 2009 where the couple lived on Knob Hill Drive in Clemmons. Algarad and Burch are each charged with murder in connection with the deaths of two men whose remains were found recently in the couple’s backyard.

As a front-end loader scooped up tires, lawn mowers and other debris from the couple’s yard Thursday morning, Burch’s friend told about conditions inside the house that were so bad she thought she might vomit.

“It reeked of feces and urine,” said the friend, whose identity was confirmed, but who spoke with the Journal only on condition that her name not be used. Her identity has been confirmed with other people the Journal has interviewed in the last two weeks. “You didn’t get a good feeling walking into that house at all. It was dark. It was like a lifeless house. It was creepy.”

When the friend first arrived to visit Burch in 2009, Algarad was completely naked and never put on any clothes during the visit. The excrement on the floor might have been both animal and human, the friend said.

“He was on all kinds of drugs and drink when I got there,” she said. “I’m pretty sure I witnessed him peeing in the corner.” The friend said Algarad’s behavior was “very sexual, very provocative.”

“He commented on a number of occasions that he was trying to get in my pants,” the friend said, adding that Burch “was all for it. I made it clear that that it was not going to happen.”

Burch’s friend said she was only a teenager when she visited the couple’s house on several occasions during those months in 2009, and that the atmosphere was one of partying, loud metal music and drugs.

“At that time I was experimenting with different drugs, and all I knew was, ‘Hey, it’s a party.’ Granted, it took a lot not to throw everything back up.” The one night she actually spent the night, the friend said, “I was woke up numerous times with Pazuzu over me trying to mess with me.”

Burch told her friend that she and Algarad had met through a mutual friend.

“She was living with him for a long time, and she kept telling me about this really weird but super-great guy that she was with. He wasn’t the average person that she would be with. Amber was always a very clean-cut person. After about a month, she quit taking showers. She started to dreadlock her hair. She filed her teeth down to points. She quit shaving. It was not Amber at all.”

Walking into the house, trying not to step in excrement, Burch’s friend saw Satanic sayings written on the walls and filthy dishes piled up with “bugs crawling all over them.”

Algarad bragged about killing two prostitutes, the friend said, adding that neither she nor Burch really believed he had done it.

“The facial tattoos, the Satanism, I never gave it much thought,” the friend said. “I figured he was just trying to psych everybody out.”

The friend said she never saw anyone from the Winston-Salem area at the couple’s house when she was there, and doesn’t know anything about Joshua Wetzler and Tommy Dean Welch, who have been identified as the two men buried in the backyard. She said she and her friends have been wondering about the victims — who they were, and how they might have ended up at the house.

Woman Killed As Satanic Sacrifice

At this point, there doesn’t appear to be any organized cultic activity in this case from Greece, but it’s still a disturbing story:

Alexandros Papageorgiou, suspect

Greek police have arrested an Athens man accused of brutally killing a woman in a satanic ritual on Orthodox Easter Sunday.

The suspect, identified by local media as Alexandros Papageorgiou, 22, confessed to murdering a 41-year-old homeless woman in a pre-dawn attack, as she lay in a square in the Athens seaside suburb of Glyfada, police said.

Papageorgiou told detectives he hit his victim with a heavy stone and then cut his arm to daub on a bench the number 666 and the symbol of an upside-down cross in blood.

He said he believed the sacrifice would get him closer to Satan.

Read the rest.

Sky News adds this detail:

Described as “deeply disturbed” and a drug addict by his father, he is alleged to have bludgeoned his victim to death, using a heavy stone which he picked up from a park in a southern suburb of Athens.

“I slit my hand with a knife and as blood oozed out I looked around and she was the first person I saw,” he said in his confession, leaked to local media Wednesday. “It could have been anyone.”

DNA analysis and a fingerprint on a plastic bag containing the murder weapon which police found in a nearby bin led authorities to track the suspect who publicised his activities through social media.

The suspect embraced Satanism at age 13.

Related posts.

Satan: A Small Skirmish Won, But the Battle Goes On

This has been an interesting week for the devil.

Something extremely grave prompted Catholics to action: the proposed desecration of the Eucharist in a Satanic ceremony.  We can’t be naive about this: it goes on with some regularity, although how much no one can say. Satanism is secretive, and they don’t advertise what they do.

 

But this time, we knew about it: more, we knew the place and time it was to happen, and that it was to occur under the name of one of our most prestigious universities.

Inaction–which is usually the best course to follow with people merely seeking attention–was no longer an option. Catholics have given their lives to protect the Real Presence. The very least we could do was raise our voices, even if that gave the offenders just what they wanted: an angry audience.

And then something unexpected happened. The tide turned. What began on blogs, begun by Women of Grace and driven by the tireless Elizabeth Scalia, migrated to the mainstream media. Harvard was forced to respond. They started out being arrogant and dismissive, and ended with the university president correctly acknowledging the grave offense and promising to attend Holy Hour in support of the Catholic community.

Let’s look at just what happened in this Week of Satan.

Before we even got to Harvard, the stage was set by Pope Francis. He’s been talking about the devil a lot, and the people who like to fantasize that he’s something other than a Catholic Pope finally noticed.

Naturally, the man the press had assumed was a kind of genial social worker in white–a global community organizer like their beloved president–turned out to actually believe all that Catholicy stuff about the devil. He was even more vocal about it than his predecessor. It must be a quaint South American thing, they probably thought, but didn’t quite know how to say that without sounding like condescending bigots.

Washington Post published this head-scratching, gently clueless piece pondering the pope’s continued warnings about the devil, and, of course, sounded like condescending bigots. (The author also keeps invoking the word “mystical,” which he clearly does not understand in context.) Francis is indeed constantly warning people about the devil, as well he should. It’s a hard teaching, and people need to be reminded that Satan is real and dangerous.

Some revisionist Catholics like to imagine that Vatican II did away with that belief so we could all move forward without worrying about such “primitive superstitions.” Francis is here to correct that notion, and good for him. Recognizing the enemy is an important step in fighting him, and reducing the enemy to metaphor (“Satan is merely what we call sin/temptation/etc”) is exactly what he wants. The greatest trick the Devil ever pulled was convincing the world he didn’t exist.

It’s interesting, then, that a so-called “Satanic Temple” (which is neither Satanic nor a temple) chose this time to start trying to attract attention. These are, of course, not Satanists, who believe in God and have chosen the side of the adversary, but atheists who have wrapped themselves in a BS philosophy of protest, anti-social behavior, and sex. And now, thanks to this stunt, they’ve been exposed as little more than scam artists looking to score free ink and make a buck.

In the process, we were given two gifts: a fight for the Body of Christ, and a teaching moment. Thanks to the media attention, the teaching of the Real Presence in the Eucharist has reached more people than was otherwise possible.

Will that bear fruit? I sure hope so.

I hope people watching and reading the news will learn of this powerful reality and become intrigued. “You mean Catholics claim to receive Jesus himself–the actual body and blood of Christ–in the Eucharist at every mass? Tell me more.”

And then there was this:

Magnificent. A couple thousand people gathered in procession and adoration. People who were there are saying it was an incredibly powerful outpouring of the spirit.

Catholics have been reminded of something important: our precious Sacrament is the target of wicked people, and even though this incident was stopped, others continue. Now more people are aware of that fact, and are offering acts of reparation for this wounding. That would not have happened if this incident had not forced the issue into public consciousness.

We also needed to be reminded that these people–both fake Satanists and real–are also children of God. They’ve invited demons into their souls, almost certainly without realizing what that means. Jesus did not curse the possessed: he exorcised them. We, too, should pray for these tools of the enemy, that they may be freed from their bondage to evil and welcome into the light of Christ, where they shall always have a loving home.

More than one Satanist has found his way to Holy Mother Church, and if we are to be Christians, we must not lose sight that it’s our job to lead them back, while also fighting the evil they wish to bring into the world.

And while we do this, we must remember that the battleground of Satan is within us as well. As Solzhenitsyn wrote, the line separating good and evil passes right through every human heart. I’d rather not lose a single soul to Hell. Not one. Not even the soul of my worst enemy.

This was a very small skirmish–little more than a probing maneuver–in a very large battle that will never cease until He comes again. We need to be vigilant, we need to be aware of the enemy and his deceits, and we need to pray constantly.  We are well past the time when  the Prayer to St. Michael should be returned to each mass, but the least we can do is pray it ourselves every day:

St. Michael the Archangel, defend us in battle. Be our defense against the wickedness and snares of the Devil. May God rebuke him, we humbly pray, and do thou, O Prince of the heavenly hosts, by the power of God, thrust into hell Satan, and all the evil spirits, who prowl about the world seeking the ruin of souls. Amen
Amen and amen.